Two names, many shared histories

Architectural description of Brough Hall, Yorkshire


SE 29 NW
4/12 Brough Hall

Country house, now 10 residences. C15, altered and extended c1575, early C17, c1730, c1770 and mid C19. Originally for de Burgh family, after c1575 for Lawson family, early C18 work possibly by William Wakefield, late C15 work by Thomas Atkinson.

Rubble, part roughcast and sandstone ashlar, with Westmorland slate roofs. Central 3-storey, 3-bay C15 tower house with cross-passage and hall, with C16 2-storey 1-bay side bays (west one a solar wing) and rear stair tower.

To east and west, projecting C18 2 storey 5-bay blocks, east block with rear chapel wing of early C18. Main north elevation: earlier work refronted C18. Central 3 bays: outer bays narrower, gabled and slightly breaking forward.

Central bay: leaved 6-panel doors in architrave with C20 Doric portico and, above, Ionic Venetian window in round arched recess with voussoirs aligned to courses. Other windows in central block are round-arched sashes with glazing bars in architraves, with 6-panel part-glazed door below upper part of window to ground floor left (giving access to cross-passage) and half-size on second floor.

Modillions to cornice and gable pediments. Parapet with moulded coping. Flanking bays have sash windows with glazing bars in architraves, moulded cornices and plain parapets. Side blocks elevationally match the flanking bays, first and fourth bays of left block being blind, and have 2-bay inner returns. Corniced stacks to right end of central range, other stacks C20 brick.

South elevation (rear), central range: C15 rubble with quoins, blocked C16 mullion and transom windows, early C18 refenestration. Right bay projects slightly and has C16 studded board cross-passage door in quoined chamfered surround with triangular head; to its right an external garderobe projects buttress-like with one vent and stone roof; to its left blocked single-light window openings formerly to garderobes of upper floor, chute at bottom now blocked. In central bay and on first and second floors of right bay, sash windows with glazing bars in architraves with tripartite keystones.

Staircase tower to left: ground-floor blocked single-light window; first- floor pedimented Tuscan Venetian window on balustraded dado, above it the head of a 2-light mullion window; second-floor Diocletian window, above it the head of a 2-light mullion window.

Right return of staircase tower: ground-floor blocked quoined chamfered doorway with triangular head; quoined surrounds of 2-light mullion windows on ground, first and second floors, the
last open. Solar wing to left: on left, part-glazed door in architrave with panelled pilasters, cornice capitals and keyed round arch: above, on first floor, a sash window with glazing bars in keyed architrave; to right, c1900 2-storey canted bay window with mullions and transoms. Left return of solar wing: external stack, corbelled out on first floor. To left again, west block has large central segmental bay with part-glazed door in console corniced architrave and Tuscan Venetian window above. In flanking bays on both floors, oculi in ashlar surrounds. Interior: central block, ground floor: hall has C16 panelling with fluted frieze and modillion cornice, altered in C18; C16 ribbed ceiling with small pendants and,on plasterwork of frieze and cross-beams, armorial motifs commemorating marriage of Elizabeth de Burgh and Ralph Lawson c1575.

First floor: 2 small rooms (now 1) over cross-passage with C16 ribbed ceilings with small pendants and armorial motifs; good early C18 woodwork in great chamber. Second floor: fragments of C16 panelling and frieze matching those in hall. Staircase tower: excellent c1730 oak staircase with turned balusters of gadroon-on-vase design; superb first-floor ceiling with modillion cornice, corner rosettes and richly-decorated oval panel; second-floor room with masons’ marks on C16 stone doorway and mullion window.

Solar wing: on ground floor, good early C18 bolection panelling with 2 pedimented chimney-pieces.

East-block: ground floor: 2 late-C18 tripartite stone fireplaces. Late C18 cantilevered stone staircase and turned baluster staircase. Chapel wing has good early C18 woodwork and plasterwork including gallery balustrade, also chimney-piece brought from great chamber. West block: ground floor: Adam-style fireplace moved to new position, coat of arms of Lawson family over original position of fireplace; Adam style decorated plasterwork to ceiling; staircase hall with central shell niche flanked by recesses; semi elliptical cantilevered stone staircase.

Brough Hall passed by marriage from the de Burghs to the Lawsons c1575.

The Lawson family were recusants, and in addition to their private chapel, built the Church of St Paulinus (qv) in the grounds of Brough Hall. John Cornforth, “Brough Hall, Yorkshire”,

Country Life (1967), pp 894-8 and 948-52; VCH i, p 301

Listing NGR: SE2156497826


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JOHN LAWSON, 1st BARONET of Brough Hall, died 1698. Inherited from his brother Henry. He was a Captain of horse in the Royalist Army. His Estates were confiscated by the Parliamentarians after they had won the Civil War and he went into exile with his family. Upon the restoration of the monarchy his estates were restored and he was made a baronet in 1665 by Charles II.
Married Catherine Howard, (1637-1668), sister of Charles Ist Earl of Carlisle.
They had many children but only two surviving sons who married and had issue:

1.Henry 2nd BARONET (1653-1726). His will entails his estates “to his maleheirs forever”.

2. WILLIAM (the only other surviving married son) described as “a gentleman ( esquire) of York”. In 1698 his father, the first Baronet, bequeathed him an annuity of £30 in his will. His brother Henry, the 2nd Baronet, bequeathed him £10 in his will in 1726.
His son:

GEORGE “of Egton in County of York.”
His son:
PHILIP ( 1729-1833)
Later known as ‘old Philip’, presumably because of his longevity (he was 104 when he died!).
He was the great-grandson of 1st baronet, John, and grandson of William Lawson.
He married Barbara Elders of Egton and had a number of children by her.
When she died he married Jane Hoggart and had one daughter by her.

JOHN Lawson ‘the Elder’ (1756-1855) Draper of Bridgestreet in Whitby, son of Philip, gt,get grandson of 1st baronet, John. Father-in-law of Cpt William Garbutt who married his daughter, Jane. Later named as 7th baronet “de jure” ( ie by right, but not in law)

JOHN (The younger) (1795-1874) also draper of Bridgestreet, Whitby. Married Ann White. His eldest surviving son was:

JOHN NICHOLAS (1823-1898) married Eliza Ann Rook.
His eldest sons were twins, John and William. John was the elder twin:

JOHN (1855-1924). In 1907 he claimed the title of “Sir John” and claimed to be the 10th baronet. He married Rebecca Storm. He was the Master of the Union Workhouse at Whitby, she was the Mistress. His portrait hangs in the Pannet Gallery in Whitby. He was an amateur painter/artist. He had 4 sons: John, Philip, William (portrait by his father in Pannet Gallery) and Henry (Harry). The eldest was:

JOHN (1885-1910) He was a sailor and drowned off the coast of India. He is commemorated on the Lawson gravestone at St Mary’s Whitby ( now eroded).
PHILIP : the heir. (1891-1962)known as the 11th Bart. Served with his brothers in the Great War. His brother,Harry (1895-1916) died in that War. His brother William is referred to below*
Married Doris Boulby. His son:

JOHN PHILIP (1926-) known as the 12th Bart. Married Joan Alice Robinson.
His son:
DAVID PHILIP (b 1957) married Pamela Giblin

WILLIAM (1893-1946) brother of the above PHILIP. Of Whitby then St Albans. He was co-founder of Faith Craft works and designed and made ecclesiastical features and church fittings, including stained glass windows.
He married Winifred Maude Corble. His son was:

JOHN Nicholas (1932-2009). An artist and master craftsman, also. He had many prestigious ecclesiastical commissions, including the window in the west wall of Henry VII chapel, Westminster Abbey, and a window in Ripon Cathedral. Also commissions in the Middle East.
Spouse: Frances Baker. Children:
, Rebecca (b1969), Helena (b 1970) Dominic (b 1972)

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ZACHARIAH Garbutt (1752-1805) mariner of Whitby, father of Cpt William Garbutt

Married to………
ELEANOR Garbutt (1764-1819) wife of above and mother of Cpt Wm Garbutt

Surviving Children of the above couple with spouses:

1.Zachariah Garbutt (1791-1833) eldest surviving son of above, brother of Cpt Wm Garbutt

Married to……

Mary Lawson (1799- 1883) wife of above, sister in law of Cpt Wm Garbutt.
Children of this couple: several, including John Lawson Garbutt, seaman, born 1829, died in 1859, lost at sea on ship ‘Rosshire’.

2.WILLIAM Garbutt (1803-1837) captain, of ‘Canton’ died In wreck, Canada.

Married to……

JANE Lawson (1808-1837) died in wreck of ‘Canton’ with husband and infant son.

Children of the above couple….

3. ZACHARIAH (‘James’) Garbutt (1831-1913) eldest son of Cpt Wm Garbutt

married Dorothy Atkinson (1834-1914)
LUCY Garbutt (1834-37) Sister of above, died in infancy

WILLIAM Garbutt (1836-37) infant brother of above, died with parents in wreck of ‘Canton’.

4.WILLIAM Garbutt ( 1862-1944) son of Zachariah & Dorothy Atkinson grandson of Cpt William.
married Margaret Metcalf (1864-1951)
Ethel Garbutt and……..

5.WILLIAM Garbutt ( 1888-1975) ‘Will’ : great grandson of Cpt William
married Blanche Snowdon (1888-1961)
Margaret Garbutt, later Carr (1914-2009)
William Garbutt (b1922) ‘Bill’: gt gt grandson of Cpt William.
married (Doris) Marjorie Walker (b1923)
Children: Barbara Jean (b 1950)

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The Lawson family history is complicated and has been subject of disputes over the centuries ( see post ‘Discord over Inheritance’). This first list indicates the line of the Lawsons who inherited estates and property and who were given the status of baronets which had been recognised ‘officially’.

EDMUND Lawson , Died 1551 Esquire of Byker & West Matsen manors in Northumberland & Durham
Married Margaret Swynhowe
Son and heir:

RALPH 1547-1623 Heir to above estates.
Married Elizabeth, heir to Manor of Burgh ( Brough) near Catterick, Yorkshire. Knighted by James I in 1603
Son & heir:

ROGER who died in his father’s lifetime c 1613/14. Married Dorothy Constable of Burton Constable Family, Yorkshire.
Son and heir to his grandfather Ralph’s estates:

HENRY 1602-1635 Married Ann
Various children including
JAMES Inherited Burgh( Brough) but only briefly, as he died young.
HENRY. Inherited from his brother James. He was a Colonel in the Royalist Army during the Civil War and died at the battle of Melton Mowbray in 1644. He had one daughter only.
His Heir:

JOHN LAWSON, 1st BARONET of Brough Hall, died 1698. Inherited from his brother Henry. He was a Captain of horse in the Royalist Army. His Estates were confiscated by the Parliamentarians after they had won the Civil War and he went into exile with his family. Upon the restoration of the monarchy his estates were restored and he was made a baronet in 1665 by Charles II.
Married Catherine Howard, (1637-1668), sister of Charles Ist Earl of Carlisle.
They had many children but only two surviving sons who married and had issue:

1.HENRY 2nd BARONET (1653-1726). 2. WiLLIAM. Esq of City of York
Married Elizabeth. D 1728
Son: Son:
JOHN. 3rd BARONET (1689-1739). George
This line continues in Lawson: part2

His son& heir:

HENRY 4th BART(1712-1769) married Anastasia Maire, heiress.

His son & heir
JOHN 5th BART (1744-1811).
No male heirs so title and estates pass to 5th Bart’s younger brother who was:

HENRY (“Maire” Lawson) 6th BART (1750-1834)
On his death, he had no male heirs to succeed. The estate passed to his great nephew through the female line, William Wright, who assumed the name Lawson. The first baronetcy lapsed but in 1841 William was created a baronet in the second creation:

WILLIAM (“Wright”) Lawson (1796-1865) 1st BART in second creation
His heir:

JOHN (1829-1910) 2nd BART in ditto

His heir:
HENRY Joseph (1877-1947). 3rd BART in ditto. Married Ursula Mary Howard, of Corby Castle Cumbria.

His heir:
RALPH Henry (1905-1975). 4th BART in ditto. He had no male heirs so Brough Castle was left to his two daughters, jointly.

His younger brother inherited the title of baronet and the seat moved to Corby Castle:
WILLIAM HOWARD-LAWSON (1907-1990) 5th BART in ditto.
His son and heir:
JOHN PHILIP Howard-Lawson (b 1934) 6th BART in ditto. He assumed the use of the Howard name and arms in 1962 by Royal License. He then resumed the use of the Lawson name in 1992.
He sold Corby Castle in 1994.

His son is:

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